Sender Mines fonds
Fonds / Archival Collection
Extent & Medium1 cm of textual records
16 photographs : black and white
Date1922–[195-], predominant 1946–1952
Administrative/Biographical HistorySender Mines (b. March 18, 1909, in Skuodas, Lithuania), a Lithuanian Jew and Holocaust survivor, was born to Mayer Mines and Rachel Aizen. He was the youngest of nine children. The family was poor and Sender left school at age eight to work on the family farm. He eventually learned to be a shoemaker, or bootleg maker. In 1936, Sender moved to Kaunas (Kovno), which was, at the time, the capital city of Lithuania. In 1937, he married his Uncle Yossel’s daughter, Chaja Mines (b. 1904), who had a daughter, Miriam (b. 1932; d. 1944). Sender and Chaja had a son, Emanuel Mines (b. 1938; d. 1944).
On June 22, 1941, the Germans invaded the Soviet Union. When they entered Kaunas on June 24, the city’s Jews were forced into the Kaunas ghetto. Sender was separated from his family when, in the winter of 1941, he was deported to the Riga ghetto in Latvia. Chaja, Miriam, and Emanuel remained in the Kaunas ghetto. On March 27 and 28, 1944, the “Children’s Action” took place. German troops and Ukrainian auxiliaries rounded up the ghetto’s children under the age of twelve, as well as the elderly and disabled. Around 1,200 victims were either taken to the Ninth Fort in Kaunas and executed or sent to Auschwitz and gassed. Miriam and Emanuel were among those taken and murdered.
In November 1943, the Riga ghetto was liquidated and Sender was transferred to Kaiserwald concentration camp. In August 1944, Kaiserwald was evacuated because of the approaching Soviet Army and prisoners were transported to Stutthof concentration camp, near Danzig, now Gdańsk, Poland. On April 25, 1945, the Soviets were again approaching and Sender and his fellow prisoners were evacuated by barge to Neustadt in Holstein, Schlesweig, Germany. In May 1945, they were liberated by the British Army. Sender remained at the displaced persons camp in Neustadt in Holstein until 1949.
Sender arrived in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, in January 1952. He found work at a shoe factory. While he was engaged to be married to Jennie Lifschitz (b. 1924; d. 2005), he discovered that his first wife, Chaja, had survived the war and, thinking that Sender had not survived, had remarried and also immigrated to Montreal. Sender and Chaja divorced in 1952. Sender and Jennie married in a synagogue on March 22, 1953.
In February 1954, Sender, Jennie, and Jennie’s daughter, Paula, moved to Vancouver, British Columbia, where they established a successful restaurant business and joined the Communist Party. They had three more children: a son who died at three days old; a daughter, Rachel; and a son, Michael. In 1967, Sender and Jennie separated. They divorced in 1981.
Sender Mines died August 26, 1982, in Vancouver.
Scope & ContentFonds consists of photographs, International Refugee Organization (IRO) documents, court document, correspondence, and German driver’s license relating to the life of Sender Mines. Fonds has been arranged into the following series: SM photographs series (1922–[195-]), SM IRO documents series (1949–1951), Court document series (1951), and Bund der Verfolgten des Naziregimes e.V. (BVN) correspondence series (1951).
Immediate Source of Acquisition or TransferRecords maintained by Sender Mines until his death in 1982. Records maintained by his daughter, Rachel Mines, until their donation to the VHEC in 2011.
AccrualsNo further accruals are expected.
LanguageEnglish, German, Yiddish
NoteSelect items only have been described at the item level. Other items have been digitized as media representations of fonds and series-level descriptions. Consult the archivist for more information.
System of ArrangementCollection has been arranged into five series which reflect the major activities of Sender Mines, as well as thematic divisions as it came to the VHEC. All photographs kept in the order they were in at the time of their donation and placed in enclosures for preservation purposes.
Select records only have been described at the item level. Other items have been digitized as media representations of fonds, series and file-level descriptions. Consult the archivist for more information.
RightsDonor relinquished rights to materials in fonds upon their donation to the VHEC but the fonds contains third-party materials for which copyright was not transferred. Researchers are responsible for determining the appropriate use or reuse of materials.
Rules or ConventionsISAD(G) informed by RAD
Date of DescriptionPrepared by Sarika Kelm in January 2017. Updated March 2017.