Diploma of the Guild of Craftsmen [Gerda Gottfried]
[Gerda Gottfried's ORT Training Certificate for Hairdressing]
Date of Creation1945-10-21
GenreDaily Life & Household
Administrative/Biographical HistoryThe Gottfrieds were an extended family of Ashkenazi Jews who lived in Vienna from the late nineteenth century until the late 1930s, when most members fled. The family patriarch was Menachem Mendel Gottfried, whose son Salomon Gottfried was born in what was then Poland (now Ukraine) in 1872 and moved to Vienna sometime before 1899, when his eldest son Leopold was born. Two daughters, Frieda and Sabine, followed. The documents in this collection pertain mostly to Leopold, his wife Chaje, their children and their children's spouses. Leopold (b. 1899; d. 1972), a successful businessman later in life, served in the Austro-Hungarian army in the First World War and married Chaje Gerje (b. 1898 in Karaszynce, Poland; d. 1989) after his return to Vienna. They had three children (Manfred, b. 1922, d. 1983; Lori, b. 1923, d. 2004; Gerda, b. 1926, d. 2000). All three children were in school at the time of the Anschluss with Germany. Overtures were made to several countries before Leopold was finally successful in securing permission for his family to emigrate to Shanghai on board Conte Biancamano in January 1939. Shanghai, an open port at the time, was a popular destination for Jews fleeing Europe; at its height, the Jewish community in Shanghai exceeded 18,000. The Gottfrieds, like all Jews fleeing Nazi territory, were compelled to surrender virtually all their belongings and money before leaving Austria. Upon arriving in Shanghai the family spent some time in charitable accommodation before settling in a very cramped apartment in the Hongkew district. The children pursued technical education offered through ORT, the Jewish community association in Shanghai, and sought work in various trades serving the expatriate population of the city. Manfred, who spoke English fluently, found work with American car firm Dodge; Lori and Gerda worked as hairdressers. Leopold tried his hand at various jobs, eventually starting a small import-export business. All members of the family participated actively in the cultural life of Shanghai’s Jewish community. When the war ended, the family stayed in Shanghai rather than face the uncertainties of trying to relocate immediately. Living conditions improved somewhat, and Manfred (who by this time had become fluent in Mandarin and Shanghai dialect) found work with the US army as an interpreter; through this position he was able to secure employment for Leopold and others at US Army warehouses around Shanghai. During this time both daughters met their future husbands, who were also from Vienna. They married within a week of one another in 1947; Gerda to engineer Hans Kraus (b. 1919; d. 1987) and Lori to machinist Hugo Seemann (b. 1910; d. 1980). By 1947 the family had begun to consider permanently relocating in the face of uncertainty regarding the Chinese Civil War; in 1949, Shanghai became a possession of the newly-established People's Republic of China and lost its status as an open port. Pressure from the new administration made living in Shanghai untenable for most expatriates, who faced expulsion if they were unwilling to leave voluntarily. Members of the family approached many countries, including Paraguay and the United States, as possible destinations. Manfred, Leopold and Chaje immigrated to Vancouver in 1948 and encouraged the rest of the family to follow. Irma Kraus also immigrated to Vancouver. According to the travelogue kept by Hans Kraus, the rest of the family left Shanghai in January 1949 and traveled for the rest of the year, stopping in Israel and Vienna for about three months at a time before arriving in Vancouver in 1950, where they remained.
Manfred Gottfried married Nettie Irene Geniele (b. 1926, d. 2015) in 1958; the couple had one daughter, Jo-Anne Gottfried Brown, in 1959. Jo-Anne married Richard F. Brown and had two children, they live in North Vancouver, BC.
Extent & Medium1 document ; 38.5 x 27 cm
Scope & ContentDocument is Gerda Gottfried's ORT training certificate for hairdressing, entitled "Diploma of the Guild of Craftsmen." English text reads: "The apprentice Gerda Gottfried appeared before the board of examiners of the 'Guild of Craftsmen' and passed the oral and practical tests of the journeyman's examination for Lady-Hairdresser with the mark good." Document is signed by members of the board and dated October 21, 1946. Symbol with the text "Guild of Craftsmen, Shanghai" at centre bottom of document.
Archival HistoryAccession 2001.007.042
PublisherShanghai : Shanghai Guild of Craftsmen